With the rapidly changing lifestyle, today, human beings are highly exposed to a wide range of stressful events and tension. Stress and anxiety have significantly contributed to the various health and psychological issues in human beings. Today disorders like dementia are highly prominent in human beings.
However, with an earlier diagnosis, it is possible to prevent it. In case one has been diagnosed with it, there are facilities that offer Dementia treatment, which can help overcome this disorder, with the right medication and assistance.
What is Dementia?
It is an umbrella term that describes various symptoms showing a decrease in cognition. The decline in awareness is the result of many underlying diseases related to brain disorders.
In simple words, dementia is not a single disorder. Still, it consists of a wide range of psychological conditions such as memory impairment or forgetfulness, which cause problems in communication and thinking.
Dementia is progressive with some deterioration in the well-established brain. However, without proper treatment, dementia may also increase faster than the patient’s age, thereby deteriorating the ability to perform everyday activities.
Types of Dementia
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Vascular dementia
- Dementia with Lewy bodies
- Frontotemporal dementia
- Progressive supranuclear palsy
- Corticobasal degeneration
Apart from this, dementia due to prion disease and alcohol-related dementia is also a type of dementia.
What are the reasons for dementia?
There are two primary reasons which cause dementia, they are-
The sensory dysfunction happens in the initial stages of dementia. This dysfunction occurs because of the olfactory epithelium, which gets exposed to the environment. The lack of blood-brain-barrier protection may allow the entry of the toxic elements, thereby causing significant damage to the chemosensory networks, which thereby cause neurodegeneration.
The improper functioning of neurons is known as neurodegeneration, which results in the cease of the neuron to neuron communication. It halts the processing of information in the brain, resulting in the inability to perform everyday work effectively.
The other reasons that cause dementia are-
Heritable conditions may also cause dementia, these conditions include-
- Fatal familial insomnia
- Urea cycle disorders
Effects of Dementia
- Memory is affected majorly; it affects the problem-solving capability and attention in the patients.
- Perception and orientation are often affected by the visuospatial function.
- Language is affected by communication problems developed by dementia patients, as they often find difficulty in finding words for communication.
Signs & Symptoms of Dementia
The initial symptoms of dementia are the increase of emotional problems such as anxiety, stress and tensions, and decreased motivation.
The signs and symptoms of dementia include-
Behavioral symptoms- These symptoms include the behavioral changes in dementia-affected individuals. The signs of behavioral changes include inappropriate behavior such as as-.
- Physical and verbal aggression
- Sexual disinhibition
Psychological symptoms- These symptoms include psychological factors. The signs of these factors include-
Stages of dementia
The pre-dementia stage is also known as the prodromal stage with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild behavioral impairment (MBI). In this stage, sensory dysfunction may precede as the first clinical signs of dementia within ten years. After the first clinical sign, the patient may lose the sense of smell.
Early-stage- In this stage of dementia, symptoms become noticeable to other people. The symptoms start to interfere with daily activities.
Middle stage- In this stage, people with dementia lose almost all new information. The problem-solving capabilities and their social judgment started to get impaired.
The patients find it difficult to function outside their own homes, and they were unable to do simple chores around the house. They also lack insights and knowledge of their surroundings.
Late-stage- In this stage, patients typically turn inward and need assistance with all of their care. In the late stages, the patients usually need 24-hour supervision to ensure their personal safety and basic needs.
In this stage, the appetite starts declining, and the patients often deny eating anything. They usually eat pureed diets, thickened liquids, which thereby retain their weight.
Treatments of Dementia
- Medications- Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like donepezil are often in use as a medicine to treat dementia.
- Non-Drug Therapy
- Palliative care
Apart from this, there are many other treatments used to cure dementia such as meditation, yoga, massages, and proper diet and rest.
Human beings often undermine the initial symptoms or problems of dementia. Therefore, it is essential to be aware of these kinds of psychological issues that can impact your life adversely to a greater extent. Dementia treatment at the right time can save a beautiful life.